Psychology is a science that studies the soul, as well as processes, patterns of human behavior and features in the behavior of individual groups or groups that are inaccessible to visual observation.
As a science, this discipline has special qualities that significantly distinguish it from other sciences. As a complex of life phenomena, it is known to everyone and appears in the form of their own images, sensations, ideas, and so on.
In scientific use, they started talking about this science in the 16th centuries. Initially, it was a special science dealing with the study of mental as well as mental phenomena. Later in the 16th-19th centuries, research expanded, and included the unconscious as well as human activities. Since the nineteenth century. this discipline is turning into an independent and experimental field of scientific knowledge.
The subject of this science is the person and his mental activity, the impact of external factors on it, as well as the interaction between individuals. The basis is a detailed behavioral analysis. The subject of study is also the consequences of the influence of external factors on the mental system itself, as well as the relationship between emotional activity and events.
Psychology combined two approaches: natural science and humanitarian, and also included applied, fundamental and practical psychology.
Fundamental psychology is committed to revealing facts, laws, and mechanisms of mental activity.
Applied Psychology studies mental phenomena in natural conditions, based on data from fundamental psychology.
Practical psychology carries out the application of psychological knowledge directly in practice, using diagnostic techniques, tests, surveys, and also conducts consultative and corrective work to eliminate problems in mental development.
Modern psychology is a diversified science. These industries act as self-developing areas. They are conditionally divided into general (fundamental) and special (applied) ones.
Fundamental branches relate to general psychology. General psychology considers mental processes (memory, sensation, thinking, perception, representation, attention, will, imagination, speech, emotions); mental properties (motivation, character, ability, temperament), as well as mental states. The name of S. L. Rubinstein is associated with the emergence of general psychology as a fundamental industry.
The special branches of this science include those that are of practical importance. This number includes pedagogical, age, differential, social, medical, legal and others.
The position of psychology is associated with diverse two traditions. On the one hand, to become a natural science discipline, and on the other, it is a desire to take the place of everyday science. Scientific and everyday psychology have fundamental differences that are interrelated.
Psychology is interconnected with the natural sciences as well as with the humanities. The connection with the natural sciences is determined by the biological nature of man, and the main feature of man is membership in society, which determines his mental phenomena. Therefore, this science began to be classified as humanitarian, and its feature is the merger of the subject and the object of knowledge.
For a long time, questions of psychology were considered in the framework of philosophy. And only by the middle of the XIX century this science became independent, however, having disconnected from philosophy, it still retained a close relationship with it. At the moment, there are scientific problems, the subject of study of which is both psychology and philosophy. These problems include the concepts of personal meaning, unfulfilled expectations, worldview, moral values, goals of life. One of the most exciting common topics is the problem of the essence, origin of consciousness and human thinking, the influence of the individual on society, as well as society on the individual.
Psychology uses experimental methods to confirm hypotheses, but there are questions that cannot be solved experimentally. In these cases, psychologists turn to philosophy. A close relationship is also observed with sociology when using collection methods such as questionnaires or surveys, traditionally related to sociological ones. And many issues and problems, like social attitudes and others, are solved jointly.
Pedagogy and history also have much in common for this experimental science. So at the heart of their rapprochement is a concept that believes that modern man is a product of the development of mankind. There is a close relationship with the medical as well as biological sciences. There are facts of the influence of somatic and mental on each other. Chronic diseases directly affect a person’s mental state, causing depression, chronic fatigue, and burnout.
For a long time there were discussions about the scientific status of psychology. Its place was defined as an intermediate between paranoscience and science. According to discussions, it represents an accumulation of theories, facts, assumptions, goals, methodologies, and is at the initial stages of its research.
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