How to properly raise a child is difficult to answer unequivocally, because there is no ideal strategy for educating the future generation. All babies have personality from birth. Young princesses and little gentlemen are all different. Some crumbs are thoughtful and calm, others are funny curious, third are naughty fidgets, fourth are closed silent people. Therefore, the tactics of the educational process cannot be the same. Only the mother knows the character of the baby. And therefore, it is she who must choose the methods that are ideally suited to her crumbs. Psychologists can only outline a general strategy and recommend how they do not need to act in order to enclose a fragile young psyche from traumatic factors.
How to raise children - psychology
In order for the crumb to grow and form correctly, parents need to arrange suitable conditions for this. First of all, for comprehensive harmonious development, the baby needs parental love and an indifferent attitude. When a baby feels indifference from a significant adult, fertile ground is created for the birth of a huge number of problems. This is not solely about behavioral abnormalities. The occurrence of a health disorder is also real.
Sometimes it happens that significant adults love the child, but the baby does not feel it. Therefore, it is necessary to demonstrate love to the crumbs by any available means, hug them, talk about their own feelings, kiss. A child should feel the unconditionality of parental love, understand that parents will love him in spite of everything and will always help.
Most parents are interested in how to raise a child correctly, because the future existence of their child depends on this.
In the first turn, your little one should be taken in full, despite the apparent flaws. Many parents make an almost irreparable mistake, trying to fit the baby to their own ideal of the human subject. And when you can’t do it, they feel disappointed. The child always feels parental disapproval, understands that they do not believe in him, that he could not justify parental expectations. As a result, the self-esteem of the crumbs suffers, which causes many problems.
Your child, whether it is a three-year-old child or a teenager, needs to be supported when he needs it. Children should understand that in any difficult situation, they can always rely on their parents. It is parents who instill a sense of security in their own children.
It is not recommended to scare children with various popular horror stories. For example, when, for educational purposes, significant adults scare the baby that with his bad behavior a woman will come and take him, the child understands what is said literally. He thinks that some scary person will enter the house, and his parents will let the granny take him. This creates a feeling of insecurity, the authority of parents falls. The kid ceases to feel safe.
You should be more interested in the life of a child, talk on various topics with him, especially on those that interest the baby himself, more often spend leisure time together, doing pleasant activities for both. Joint pastime, filled with bright positive emotions, contributes to the emergence of a friendly interaction between adults and kids.
Own child needs to be respected, you should not brush aside the words of the crumbs, from his opinion. Unacceptable phrases of the type: "do not be clever", "still small to give out tips." It is necessary to praise the offspring even for the slightest success.
In order to teach something to a child, it is necessary to take into account one children's peculiarity - the kids brilliantly remember everything that interests them. Therefore, there is no reason to hammer knowledge into a child, it is better to make classes interesting for him, as well as to include game moments.
Notation should not be abused. After all, they are boring and completely uninteresting crumbs. It is better to demonstrate the desired behavior with your own actions. Children always take the actions of their parents as a model.
How to properly raise a child from birth
The educational process is best to start from the first decades of the baby's life. Active development of crumbs occurs just in the first year of their existence. At the described stage, they adapt to the environment and gain the first valuable experience. After all, in just 12 months, the baby needs to learn how to agitate, smile, respond to parental voices, mood, and distinguish intonations.
Often, parents of infants pay more attention to following the daily routine and diet, proper care, and not the educational process. It is up to the age of one year that the basic habits of the offspring are laid down on a subconscious tier, inclinations, personality traits are formed. Further maturation of the crumbs is mainly due to the educational process in infancy.
The conditionally annual stage of educational work is usually divided into 4 steps in accordance with the trimesters.
Below are recommendations on how to raise a child correctly in the first trimester of his life.
The stage under consideration implies the formation of “true” habits in children and the prevention of the generation of harmful ones. In addition, here parents should competently organize food crumbs. This is very important for an adequate weight gain, development of addiction to the regime.
In this trimester, crumbs should have such habits as:
- without a dummy, immerse yourself in the Morphey kingdom on the street;
- spend some time in the crib, having fun on their own;
- hold the head;
- Displease when replacing the diaper;
- fall asleep without motion sickness.
Serious attention to crumb hygiene is also recommended. The morning at the peanuts should begin with the mother of a friendly smile, carrying out hygienic manipulations, which include washing the baby's hands and face, washing, changing the diaper. These daily activities of the offspring will develop a habit of keeping themselves clean.
In order to develop the habit of holding the head in the crumbs, it is necessary to lay it on the tummy. Gradually, the baby will get used to the described action, the muscles of the neck and back will become stronger.
In order for the child to begin to aguk, it is necessary to play with him more often. It is also good if the baby will hear nursery rhymes and children's songs. Any action directly related to the child needs to be commented on, for example, how the sliders are put on, the diaper changes. Talking with the baby, it is recommended to smile, because this is how the culture of communicative interaction is laid.
In the next trimester, the visual, sensory and auditory worldview develops. The stage under consideration includes the preparation of the offspring for speech. It is recommended to include musical melodies of various genres. Moreover, it is better that they be harmonious and light: classic, children's tunes, modern motifs. In order for the child to walk, he began to babble his attention, and he should direct him to other sounds. He should be acquainted with the surrounding reality, attracting his interest in bird tweets, the noise of pouring water, the rattling of a tractor.
The mental formation of crumbs at the described stage should debut from communicative interaction. Parents need to play with the child, shaping his perception. It is recommended to start exercising when awake, when the offspring does not bother anything and he is cheerful. Such activities should be fun for the baby, so you should not play with the baby when he wants to eat or is naughty. At the considered stage, the laying of the moral and aesthetic foundations of education takes place, which the child receives as a result of communication with his relatives.
Love and joyful emotions presented to the baby will become the starting point for forging a moral and aesthetic behavioral model. In addition to those listed in the schedule, there should also be daily exercise and massage. At this stage, the exercises should already be more diverse, since their goal is to prepare the baby for crawling.
The third trimester stage is marked by the injustice of the offspring and his curiosity. Activity in babies at the described stage increases significantly. Since the child has already learned to crawl and sit down, and some kids are trying to get up, it is time for physical training.
First of all, the baby must be given freedom of movement around the house. Therefore, the possible route of his trip should be protected as much as possible. In this trimester, babies are increasingly interested in the contents of drawers and cabinets, so it is recommended to remove any items that could harm the baby.
At this stage, it is already possible to make the first attempts to accustom the child to the pot. It is necessary to plant the crumbs on the pot after feeding, walking, sleeping. After some time, the baby will understand why they put him on the pot. At about the age of seven months, you can start teaching the baby washing hands. Thus, the concept of cleanliness is formed.
Putting on breast bibs before feeding, changing dirty clothes immediately after they got dirty, mothers inculcate neatness in the children. In this case, adults need to comment on each action and explain it.
For children, gaming is important, regardless of the age stage. Through her, they know the world. At seven or eight months of age, you can demonstrate tiny toys and manipulations with them, for example, show how the ball rolls, the wheels of the machine spin. Also at the described stage, you can already show the individual parts of the head: nose, eyes, ears. It is necessary to deal with babies in the third trimester daily. Here you should also familiarize the offspring with the words-prohibitions: "not." For example, when a baby fights during game activity, it is necessary to say “it is impossible”, explaining the reasons (it is unpleasant for me, it hurts).
In the fourth trimester, the upbringing of a child covers absolutely all spheres of his activity. Here the baby actively interacts with the adult environment and tries to walk independently. When the baby independently gets up on his knives, he should be encouraged. First, the little one needs help, drive him, holding by two handles, then by one. After a while, the baby will be able to linger, standing on its legs, for a few seconds.
The mental formation of the baby is based on instilling in him the ability to manipulate objects. The full educational process includes close communicative interaction with the offspring. Chatting with the peanut should be ongoing, but it is not recommended to copy the children's speech or talk. This can lead to the formation of a speech defect.
How to raise a child in 1 year
The human person, according to psychological research, is formed at an early stage of existence. Therefore, it is very significant during the educational process that the one-year crumb acquires the experience necessary for future life, which will become the foundation of attitude towards the environment and the environment.
At this stage, the gameplay is the prevailing type of activity. However, due to the age of the baby, he cannot independently organize his own leisure. Therefore, it falls on the parental shoulders. It is necessary for the offspring to show possible manipulations with toys, for example, how the doll walks, the frog jumps, the car transports. Role-playing games are also important; you can treat a sick bear or cook dinner with a bunny with a peanut. However, the plots of the games must be primitive so that the child understands them well.
In this case, in the process of gaming leisure, you must carefully monitor the offspring. The game will reflect the children's idea of existing family relationships, the world, people. Observation will allow parents to timely correct negative perceptions or destructive attitudes.
The one-year-old understands exclusively visual-figurative treatment. Therefore, in order to convey to the crumbs any information, it is necessary to model the situation, based on fairy tales and taking as examples favorite characters.
You also need to constantly explain to the peanut how to behave, which is good, what actions are bad. In addition, parents should always remain a positive example, as babies always imitate the adult environment. At the stage of education under consideration, parents should regularly clean, arrange things in the places intended for them, show by their own actions compliance with the daily regimen and hygiene rules.
How to raise a child in 2 years
In the period under review, the educational process should differ in relation to boys and young ladies.
The upbringing of a boy should include, first of all, an expression of love in various forms: hugs, kisses, conversations, joint games. It is forbidden to beat the baby and offend, because he can grow up uncertain, aggressive, angry or distrustful. The boy must be brought up within strict boundaries, without excessive cursing, but without imperious manners.
You should not limit the physical capabilities of the little boy and his activity. This is normal if the baby will often walk with broken knees, because the future defender of the family and the Fatherland is growing.
In addressing the baby it is better to use his name, or to call “son”, and diminutive forms such as “honey”, “bunny” are better not to use. The kid should be aware from an early age that he grows up as a man and in the future will become the breadwinner and protector of the family.
The education of young ladies must be directed to the development of creative potential. Girls in comparison with their "antipodes" are more balanced, assiduous, calm. Monotonous manipulations are given to them easier. They have developed imagination and a sense of beauty.
It is necessary to encourage the daughters' desire to show their own feelings, to compliment young princesses, to endow her with praises and tenderness. Girls should grow up confident, self-sufficient, be able to recognize false feelings.
Kids should be given the opportunity to choose their own game. From childhood, little ladies need to be explained that they can achieve a lot in life. You can show them photos of successful ladies - doctors, politicians, actresses, explaining along the way that when they grow up, they can become just as successful and respected aunts.
How to raise a child in 3 years
Three-year-old is a pretty serious test of strength for parents. After all, the baby has grown noticeably, she began to talk. The kid already has an active position in expressing his own aspirations. At a certain point, the behavioral response of the crumbs and his actions began to change dramatically. A previously obedient little peanut turns into an intolerable “bandit”. So the three-year crisis is manifested.
The most important thing here is the reserve of patience on the part of significant adults. Any situation of disobedience to the offspring should be evaluated extremely soberly. It is necessary to understand the feelings of babies and skillfully use children's moods against them. For example, when the little one refuses to stack toys, but instead scatters them, you should ask the child to never collect them.
In the described period, various requirements, prohibitions are ineffective. It is better to try to switch the attention of the child to actions more exciting for him.
It is not recommended to react to hysterical seizures excessively violently. However, indulging in any children's whims, too, is not necessary. The three-year-old checks the limits of what is permitted. How much parents can allow him. If, at the slightest hysteria, he gives the little one what he wants, then he will have the habit of starting to hysteria for the slightest reason. It is necessary to try to distract the offspring from the provoking factor, to another interesting thing.
The educational process at 3 years should be based on consistency. If mom forbade the baby, then dad should not be allowed to do so. This rule should be especially clearly conveyed to compassionate grandmothers and kind grandfathers.
And most importantly, to educate peanuts should be in love. It is necessary to take care of the offspring, to train them, to show the desired behavior with their own positive example.
How to raise a child choleric
A kid with choleric temperament is indefatigable by nature. Nature endowed such a crumb with powerful energy potential. From an early age, the baby shows its unbearable temperament, and loved ones say with bewilderment: “well, character!” The task of the adult environment in a particular case is to help the baby grow up to the extent flexible, restrained and compromise.
The little owner of this temperament is infinite in movements, which are characterized by impetuosity, sharpness, as if someone was chasing him. Such a baby does not stand long expectations, and therefore is not able to sit idle for a long time in one place. The child’s conversation is emotional, the words sound abruptly and quickly. He does not speak, but chattering, swallowing words and syllables. Sometimes he is so keen on monologues that he is unable to hear anyone.
Often loses control over himself, starting to scream and argue loudly. Raising a child of choleric 3-4 years is not easy. Such a kid loves adventure and risk. At the same time, the baby's susceptibility to abrupt mood changes plunges the close environment into bewilderment.
The choleric kid can easily change his mind at the last minute. You never know what to expect from him. He can behave unconventionally in any situation. The kid himself often does not understand what is happening to him because of his impulsiveness. A child with choleric temperament instantly makes decisions, his ideas are spontaneous, but often interesting. All the new baby is quickly carried away, but it is also easy for him to forget about it in a short time. During training, shows abilities if the child is interested at the moment.
Little choleric falls asleep with difficulty and for a very long time. A restless sleep, depending on the impressions of the day.
The choleric has a lot of positive qualities: fearlessness, riskiness, courage, determination, self-confidence, perseverance. At the same time, a tendency to obstinacy, restlessness, arrogance, conflict, impatience, playfulness, which gives parents certain difficulties in raising a choleric child.
Considering that children of choleric are emotionally unstable, their parents need to master the ability to control their own emotions. Before you tell your child in a fit of anger or frustration, you need to stop, take a few deep breaths or count to ten and just think about whether the notations and screams aimed at the baby will help in your situation.
An energetic child choleric must be involved in the implementation of useful tasks, such as homework. The kid should see the final goal and the result of his work. Teach your child to speak the stages of work out loud, then to himself, and adhere to your plan.
For choleric, it is very important to engage in outdoor sports. This will allow you to give out your energy, and training will teach you how to calculate your strength. Such a baby just needs living space, so as often as possible should be with him on walks.
Help to develop attention and perseverance can design, needlework, drawing, manual labor. It is important for parents not to be irritable to the baby if he is distracted, and to encourage patience and diligence every time. It is important to teach the baby to pre-think about their decisions, evaluating their reserves of strength, and only then proceed with actions. It should be taught courtesy in any situation, since the immediacy of the choleric often affects the pride of people.
It is especially required to pay attention to the ability to build relationships in the children's team, because parents will not be able to be around all the time. For a choleric, the problem is to impose leadership on other children. The second problem of the baby choleric is the desire for diversity, so regular friends do not stay close. In this case, it is required to encourage the baby to analyze his behavior, to deal with him in conflict situations, to discuss films and books. It is necessary to teach the baby to control his emotions, taking into account the interests of other people.
In the fight against the bad mood of a choleric child, humor will help. Show your child the way out of accumulated emotions: you can beat the toy, throw and beat the pillow. This will be better than foiling your anger on parents and children in kindergarten. Self-control can also help breathing exercises. With increasing emotional stress of the baby, you can use distracting techniques, for example, to interest in something else and switch to this lesson. Sometimes it’s enough just to hug and calm. Adults need to observe as much as possible the behavioral manifestations of their crumbs and act before they get angry or cry. It is forbidden to categorically tease a little choleric.