Psychology and psychiatry agreed on a common object of study - this is the psyche, but they share historical preconditions in determining the goal. Psychology and psychiatry have significant differences, but it is mistakenly believed that psychiatrists deal only with the sick, and only psychologically healthy people are of interest to psychologists. Recently, psychologists have been active assistants for doctors in conducting psychotherapy, as well as in studying the treatment of mental state of a person. In other words, modern psychology is as close as possible to the practical activities of doctors. Some psychiatrists object to collaborating with psychologists, while others find it difficult to conduct psychotherapy without teaming up with psychologists.
Psychology refers to the science that studies the laws of development, as well as the functioning of the human psyche. In particular, the psychologist is faced with the task of bringing to the client the need to listen to the internal state, understand the essence of the problem and make an optimal decision on his own to get out of this situation.
Psychiatry refers to the branch of clinical medicine, in the field of study of which mental mental disorders fall. Psychiatry deals with treatment and the provision of preventive care to patients, including, if necessary, isolation of people with mental disorders who violate social norms and have deviations in behavior.
The birth of these sciences has been taught for the 19th century, however, since ancient times, doctors have made attempts to treat mental illness, and psychologists have studied the human soul. This means that psychologists and doctors moved in parallel, pursuing different goals.
Psychiatry put forward the utilitarian goal to the first step - to cure a mental illness, and already theoretical understanding was carried out along the way. Psychology wanted to know the essence of the phenomenon of the human psyche, not at all worrying about the practical application of its assumptions.
The two scientific fields of psychiatry and psychology came together only thanks to Sigmund Freud. He managed to harmoniously combine practical medical psychiatry, as well as abstract philosophical psychology into a single whole. The result of such a merger gave a new section - psychoanalysis. The term psychoanalysis has come to have two identically identical meanings. Psychoanalysis acted as a treatment technique, and as a science studying the human psyche.
Sigmund Freud was one of the first to admit that the psyche is peculiar not only to mentally ill people, but to all practically healthy individuals. The psyche is a manifestation of all life, and does not appear as a sign of pathology. No one began to dispute this truth, because unconsciously, scientists, doctors, healthy people do not think about the psychic, because it inspires unpleasant associations. An interesting fact is that Freud attributed his theory to deep psychology and was never called a psychiatrist, although he had a medical education. The discovery of the technique of psychoanalysis came about through Freud's fundamental discoveries. First, he showed interest in the symptoms and in all the thoughts that the patients reported. Secondly, he began to create a psychoanalytic theory based on the study of nervous diseases, as well as on the basis of the manifestation of normal sayings of the human psyche: acuity, reservations, forgetting, erroneous actions, dreams. The main merit of Freud is that he listened to his patients and suggested the possibility of the existence of general laws of the functioning of the psyche for patients and for healthy people.
Psychology and psychiatry owed Sigmund Freud the organization of the first Vienna school of psychotherapy.
Adler’s “individual psychology” became the second Vienna school. Alfred Adler is the founder of individual psychology, which studies a person in depth, by elucidating the individual's attitude to established social tasks. Alfred Adler believed that for people the most difficult thing is to understand, as well as change yourself. There are four basic principles of the Adler school - the unity of an individual lifestyle, integrity, social interest and the importance of goal-oriented behavior. Adler’s conclusion that expectations and goals have the greatest influence on human behavior than impressions of the past was the main reason for the discrepancy with Freud. Adler believed that people are primarily motivated by the goal of excellence and the desire to conquer the environment. He noted the effect of social influence on the personality itself, given the importance of the social interest of the individual: cooperation, a sense of community, concern for others. Life according to Adler is an advance towards successful adaptation, greater cooperation, as well as altruism. Adler was the first to practice family psychotherapy, and his followers have already made a significant contribution to group psychotherapy, as well as short-term psychotherapy and the use of psychology in education.
What is psychotherapy? This area represents a system of therapeutic effects on the psyche, and also through the psyche on the whole human body. Psychotherapy is determined by activities aimed at ridding a person of various problems (social, emotional, personal) and is carried out by a specialist after establishing deep personal contact with the patient through conversations, discussions, using a variety of techniques and techniques.
A certain original role in psychology and psychiatry was left by Carl Gustav Jung, a Swiss psychiatrist, the founder of the direction of deep analytical psychology. The task of analytical psychology is the interpretation of archetypal images that arise in patients. Jung's work on the problems of psychiatry, in this case, schizophrenic disorders in thinking, laid the foundation for collaboration with Freud. Their collaboration lasted five years. After the publication of publications in 1912, “Psychology of the Unconscious,” many of Freud's ideas were refuted, and then he resigned as president of the International Psychoanalytic Society. The year 1921 was marked by the publication of the work Psychological Types, where Jung divided people into extroverts and introverts, and also presented the world with his theory of archetypes. With his ideas, Jung influenced the development of not only psychiatry and psychology, but also other sciences - anthropology, cultural studies, ethnology.
The opening of the third Vienna school of psychotherapy belongs to Victor Frankl. This is a famous Austrian psychiatrist and psychologist. For several years he was an active member of the society of individual psychology, but in 1927 he had to leave him, since the path of young Frankl was filled with critical speeches addressed to "individual psychology", and all subsequent work would be imbued with rejection of the ideas of Freud and Adler. Clinical psychiatry is becoming Frankl's main occupation, which will subsequently lead him to create the concept of speech therapy, as well as existential analysis. The created theory of logotherapy and existential analysis is a system of psychological, philosophical and medical views on the essence and nature of a person, as well as development mechanisms in normal and personality pathologies with subsequent correction of anomalies. The main idea of the concept: the driving force of human behavior is the desire to find, as well as realize their unique meaning in life. How many tragedies could have been avoided (drug addiction, suicides, alcoholism, rampant crime) if people had not had limitations in their possibilities (objective, external, internal, personal). The existential vacuum challenged both psychiatry and psychology, and the state, which excommunicated people from responsibility for finding them, as well as realizing the unique meaning of life. And Frankl, thanks to his writings and publications, was the inspiration for the work of representatives of humanistic psychology.